Although Bison meat is similar to Beef. It needs to be cooked differently.
Grilling a Bison Steak Bison Steaks are cut similar to beef cuts, but because of their low fat content they cook faster than a beef steak. Also, with the lower fat content you do not want to over cook the meat as this will make it tough. It is best cooked rare to medium rare and never cook it past medium for those who do not like pink in their meat. Here are a few simple steps to help you prepare your steak to perfection. Preheat your grill to a very high temperature.-Lightly coat the steak with cooking oil so that it doesn’t stick to the grill.-Season with a salt free steak spice (salt dries out the meat and makes it tough, so salt at the table). Bison needs less seasoning due to it richer flavor. Try pepper, garlic and rosemary.
-A rare steak needs about 3 minutes a side over high heat. For medium rare and medium steaks, sear the meat over high heat for about 2 minutes a side and then move to a lower
temperature area of the grill for another 2 to 3 minutes a side. -Cooking time varies depending on your grill. Adjust cooking time to your B-B-Q and remember to not overcook your bison steak. You can always put your steak back on the grill if it’s too rare but once you overcook it,there’s nothing that can be done, unless of course you really love your dog.
Bison short rib Chilli
This was shared with us from one of our customers, very good!
3 pounds meaty Bison short ribs, with bone
Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper
One 2-ounce package dried New Mexico chilies (about 8), stemmed, seeded and cut or torn into pieces
2 large dried ancho chilies, stemmed, seeded and cut or torn into pieces
1/4 cup extra-virgin olive oil
6 large cloves garlic, chopped
1 large red onion, chopped
1 tablespoon freshly ground cumin
1 tablespoon dried Mexican oregano
1 cup beef broth (preferably organic)
2 tablespoons dark agave
One 15 to 16-ounce can black beans, rinsed and drained
Adobo sauce, from can of chipotle chilies, optional
Chopped green onions
Garnishes, such as lime wedges, sour cream, chopped cooked bacon, chopped red and/or green jalapenos
Arrange the short ribs on a large sheet of foil. Sprinkle all over with 1 teaspoon salt and 1 teaspoon pepper.
Bring the New Mexico chilies, ancho chilies and 1 1/2 cups water to a simmer in a medium saucepan over high heat. Cover, reduce the heat to medium-low and simmer until the chilies are just tender, 5 to 6 minutes. Transfer the mixture to a blender. Holding the top on firmly, blend until the Chile puree is smooth.
Heat the oil in a large pot over medium-high heat. Add the short ribs in batches and brown on all Preheat the oven to 325 degrees F.
sides, 5 to 6 minutes per batch, transferring the short ribs to a bowl each time.
Add the garlic and red onions to the drippings in the pot. Sauté until the onions soften, about 5 minutes. Mix in the cumin and oregano. Add the Chile puree from the blender, the broth, agave, and espresso; stir to blend. Return the short ribs and any juices from the bowl to the pot; stir to coat. Bring to a simmer. Cover and place the pot in the oven. Braise until the ribs are very tender, about 2 hours 30 minutes.
Using tongs, transfer the ribs and any loose bones to a rimmed baking sheet. Carefully cut the membrane off each piece of meat (try to cut away only the membrane and not any meat). Discard the membranes and all bones. Cut the meat into small (scant 1/2-inch) cubes. Return the meat to the sauce in the pot. Mix in the black beans. Season the chili with about 1/4 teaspoon each of salt and pepper. If desired, add the adobo sauce by teaspoonfuls to increase the spiciness. Transfer the chili to a large bowl. Sprinkle with the green onions.
Bison prime rib roast
3-4 lb. Wild T Bison Farm bone-in rib roast
½ cup beef base concentrate
¼ cup (approx. 2 heads) freshly pureed garlic
½ cup dried rosemary
Coarsely ground black pepper
¼ cup vegetable oil
Outer peels of 4 large onions
Rub the roast with beef base concentrate and then the garlic. Sprinkle the rosemary and pepper all over, letting it stick the beef base. Wipe the oil on your hands and gently rub the herbs into the roast. Let stand 1 hour at room temperature.
Preheat oven to 500 degrees F. Place the roast on a foil-covered roasting pan. Arrange the onion peels around the base of the roast and place in oven. Roast for 8 minutes, so that the onion peels burn and the smoke lightly penetrates the meat, then lower the heat to 250 degrees F. Roast for 18 minutes per pound, or until a meat thermometer reads 125 degrees f for rare or 138 degrees F for medium-rare. The low temperature will keep the roast tender.
Remove the roast from the oven and allow it to rest for 15 to 20 minutes before carving. The temperature will rise about 10 degrees F while resting, bringing the meat to the correct serving temperature.
Corner Pockets Mixed Grill
A Mixed Grill of Blackened Bison London Broil and Shrimp Skewer with a warm roasted potato salad and Sun-dried Tomato Basil Vinaigrette
4-5oz. pieces of Bison London Broil
¼ cup of Cajun Blackening spice
12pc. of Gulf Shrimp – 4 skewers (shelled, deveined, and skewered with wooden skewers)
1lb. baby Yukon gold potatoes (washed and thinly sliced in rounds)
1 small red onion (cut in half and thinly sliced)
½ red bell pepper (seeded and thinly sliced into strips)
½ green bell pepper (seeded and thinly sliced into strips)
Salt and pepper
-Preheat oven to 350
-lightly coat the potatoes in Olive oil and salt and pepper and lie on a sheet tray in an even layer and bake for 10 minutes. Turn potatoes with a spatula and continue to cook an additional 10 minutes until golden brown. When the potatoes are done, take them out of the oven and allow them to cool.
When the potatoes are slightly cooled toss with the red onion and peppers. Set aside.
Heat grill or grill pan to medium high heat. Lightly coat the Bison London Broil with the Cajun Blackening Spice. When the grill is heated place the Bison on the grill and cook for 4 minutes turn and cook an additional 4 minutes. Pull from the grill and allow to rest. While the Bison is resting, lightly drizzle the shrimp skewers with olive oil, salt and pepper and place on the grill. Cook for 2-3 minutes on each side.
-Heat a large sauté pan over medium high heat with a drizzle of olive oil. Add the potato, pepper, and onion mixture and toss until warm. Add the vinaigrette just to coat the potatoes.
-Thinly slice the Bison London Broil against the grain of the meat. Serve over the warm potato salad with the Shrimp Skewer. Drizzle the remaining vinaigrette over the dish.
Sun-dried Tomato Basil Vinaigrette
¼ cup sundried tomatoes (chopped)
¼ tsp. crushed garlic
½ cup red wine vinegar
¾ cup olive oil
½ tsp. Dijon mustard
¼ cup fresh basil (leaves torn)
Salt and pepper
In a food processor combine the garlic, vinegar, Dijon mustard and puree until combined. Slowly add the olive oil and continue to mix until slightly thickened. Add the sun-dried tomatoes and basil until thoroughly chopped into the dressing. Season with salt and pepper to taste.
Beer Braised Biscut
1 3lb. Bison Brisket
3/4 teaspoon salt
½ teaspoon black pepper
2 tablespoons olive oil
2 tsp. olive oil
2 lbs. onion, halved and thinly sliced lengthwise (6 cups)
1/2 Bay leaf
1 (12oz) bottled beer (not dark beer or ale)
1 beef bouillon cube, crumbled
1 tablespoon Balsamic vinegar
Directions: Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Pat brisket dry and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Heat oil in a 6-8 quart wide heavy pot over moderately high heat until hot, but not smoking, then brown the meat well on all sides, about 10 minutes total. Transfer with tongs to a platter.
Cook onions with bay leaf in remaining oil over moderate heat, stirring occasionally until golden, 10-12 minutes. Remove from heat and transfer half of onions to a bowl. Arrange brisket over onions in pot, then top with remaining onions. Add beer, bouillon cube, and vinegar (liquid should come halfway up sides of brisket) and bring to a boil.
Cover pot and braise in the middle of oven until meat is very tender, 3 to 3 1/2 hours. Cool is sauce, uncovered, 30 minutes.
Transfer brisket to a clean cutting board. Season with salt and pepper. Slice meat across the grain and serve with sauce.
1 lb. Bison round steak; cut 1/4 – 1/2 thick
3/4 c water
1 c freshly sliced mushrooms
1 envelope onion soup mix
1 c sour cream
2 T flour
3 T olive oil
Cut bison into small pieces. Heat oil in skillet, add bison and brown quickly. Add water and mushrooms, stir in soup mix and bring to a boil. Blend flour and sour cream; add to mixture. Reduce heat to medium and continue to cook until it thickens. Serve over hot buttered noodles.
London Broil Grill
4 large garlic cloves, minced
4 tablespoons balsamic vinegar
4 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
3 tablespoons Gray Poupon Dijon mustard
1 1/2 tablespoons Worcestershire sauce
1 teaspoon freshly chopped Rosemary
1 teaspoon freshly chopped basil
1/2 teaspoon dried hot red pepper flakes
2/3 cup olive oil
2 pound Wild T Bison London Broil
In a bowl whisk together marinade ingredients until combined well. Put London broil in a large re-sealable plastic bag and pour marinade over it. Seal bag, pressing out excess air, and set in a shallow dish. Marinate meat, chilled, turning bag once or twice, overnight.
Remove meat from fridge, leaving it in the plastic bag set out on counter to bring to room temperature. When the meat is no longer “cold” it is ready to grill. Disgard marinade and place London Broil on an oiled rack set about 4 inches over med-high heat, turning once, 9 to 10 minutes on each side, or until it registers 130°F. to 135°F., on a meat thermometer for rare to medium-rare meat. Transfer meat to a cutting board and let stand 10 minutes. Cut meat diagonally across the grain into thin slices.
Grilled Skirt Steak
Bison skirt steak
2 tablespoons olive oil
2 tablespoons red wine vinegar
2 tablespoons brown sugar
1 tablespoons red pepper flakes
1 garlic cloves, minced
1salt & pepper
1. Marinate the steak in the ingredients above for 2-3hours. 30 minutes prior to grilling, remove steak from refrigerator and let sit at room temperature.
2. Grill to medium-rare (about 2 1/2 min each side). Since the thickness of skirt steaks can vary, make sure that you put the thicker slices on the grill first.
3. Let the cooked steaks rest for 5 minutes. Slice ACROSS the grain into thin slices.
SHEPHERD'S PIE (bison)
2 lbs ground bison
1 c onion diced
1 c carrots diced
1/4 c tiny frozen peas
1 c celery diced
1 1/2 c corn fresh or frozen
2 cloves garlic minced
salt and pepper to taste
1/2 t nutmeg
16 oz. bison or beef stock
1 bottle of Guinness draught stout
1 T Worcestershire sauce
4 T butter mixed with
4 T flour
2 lbs potatoes cooked and mashed
Cook the ground bison in frying pan with olive oil until brown. Add onion, carrots, celery, peas, garlic, salt, pepper and nutmeg. Lower heat and cook for 10 minutes or until vegetables are wilted. Add bison or beef stock and Guinness, bring to a boil. Stir in enough of the butter/flour roux to make a thick gravy to bind the filling. Pour into a large shallow baking pan and cool. The filling should be about 1 1/2 inches deep.
Cover the meat mixture in the pan with the corn and then top with the hot mashed potatoes evenly, brush the surface with the butter. Bake at 325 F for 35-40 minutes.
Bison Osso Buco
By Chef Manfred E. Roehr
Six 2-inch meaty bison shanks (about 6lbs)
2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
4 tablespoons (2oz) unsalted butter
4 medium tomatoes; peeled, cored, seeded, and chopped
1 medium onion; minced
1 rib celery; minced
1 large carrot; minced
4oz oyster mushrooms; chopped
Sea salt and freshly ground pepper to taste
½ cup minced fresh parsley
3 to 4 cups of beef stock
1. In a large deep skillet, heat the butter and olive oil until hot. Add the bison to the skillet and brown over moderate heat until brown on all sides (about 10 minutes). Transfer to a platter and season with salt and pepper. Set aside.
2. Add onion, celery, and carrot to skillet, and cook until softened but not browned for about 5 minutes. Deglaze with about ½ cup of the stock, using a metal spatula to scrape up any bits in your pan. Cook until most of the liquid has evaporated. This will help build the flavor base of the sauce.
3. Return the bison to the skillet. Add the tomatoes, mushrooms, and enough stock to almost immerse the bison. Cover the skillet and simmer for about 1 hour and 45 minutes, or until the meat is almost falling off the bone. Simmer gently and keep the heat as low as you can. Keep watching the skillet and add more stock if needed.
4. Serve the bison shanks on hot platters and garnish the platters with fresh chopped parsley 5 minutes before serving, allowing its aroma to penetrate the tender bison shanks.
5. You can serve the bison with risotto or your own choice of starch. Enjoy Chef Manfred E. Roehr’s cooking!
Pulled BISON BBQ
5-6 lbs. Bison (I generally use 2 large arm shoulder roasts)
Place bison in Dutch oven and add enough water to almost cover the meat. Cover tightly and cook at 250 degrees F. for 8-10 hours until meat is tender and falls apart. Drain off the liquid, which can be saved for soup, etc.. Pull the meat apart to your liking. Place the pulled bison and sauce in a large pot and mix thoroughly, reheat at low temperature until hot. Enjoy!
2 cups of ketchup
2 tbsp of Worcestershire sauce
¼ cup of honey
¼ cup of cider vinegar
3 tbsp Gulden’s mustard
¼ cup of dark molasses
¼ cup of Emeril’s kicked up Bam-B-Q sauce
Mix all ingredients and pour over meat.
Serve on warm, toasted deli rolls.
Makes 16 Tacos
1 lb. ground Bison
2 tbsp. onion, grated
1 ½ tsp. salt
1 cup cheddar cheese, shredded
2 cups finely chopped lettuce
1/2 clove garlic, minced
1/2 tsp. Worcestershire Sauce
1 tsp. chili powder
16 canned or frozen tortillas or taco shells
1/2 cup chopped onion
1 cup finely cut fresh tomato
Mix together meat, garlic, grated onion, Worcestershire sauce, salt and chili powder, brown in skillet in small amount of oil. Mixture should be moist, keep hot. Pour oil about l/4 “deep in skillet and heat. Fry tortillas quickly, one at a time. Fry on one side a few minutes, just until it starts to puff in center, but not to a crisp. Turn to other side and fold into a half moon shape, making a pocket for filling. Hold the top side of tortilla down with a spatula or wooden spoon and fry until crisp on one side, doing the same with the other side. Drain shells. Stack shells, open side up in a baking pan and keep hot in a warm oven. If using taco shells, prepare according to package directions. When tortillas or taco shells are ready, fill each with 1-2 tbsp, hot ground bison mixture. Top meat mixture in each shell with cheese, chopped onion, shredded lettuce and tomato. Spoon about 2 tsp. taco sauce on each.
Heat together 1 cup tomato juice, 3 tbsp. catsup, 1/8 tsp. Tabasco sauce and 1/2 tsp. Worcestershire sauce.
Permission for this recipe courtesy of the National Buffalo Foundation and is published in Buffalo is Heart Healthy.
Bison Blue Cheese Burger
2 Red onions, sliced
Balsamic Vinegar, as needed
Extra Virgin Olive Oil, as needed
2 bulbs Fennel, sliced
1 1/2 lbs. ground bison
2 T. Dijon mustard
1 T. each shallots and garlic, roasted, chopped and combined
1 t. Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce
Kosher salt, as needed
Fresh ground black pepper, as needed
6 t. blue cheese or Roquefort
Method (1) Drizzle red onions with balsamic vinegar and extra virgin olive oil, and grill until tender. Saute fennel in extra virgin olive oil until tender. Toss red onions and fennel together; set aside. (2) Combine ground bison, Dijon mustard, roasted shallot and garlic, Worcestershire sauce, salt and pepper, and form 6 patties, adding one teaspoon of blue cheese into the center of each patty. (3) Grill to order. Garnish with grilled red onion and fennel. Serve with rosemary roasted potatoes and coleslaw. SERVES 6
RECIPE CREDIT: Executive chef and owner Kathy Cary, Lilly’s, Louisville, Ky.,
Baked Stuffed Bison Heart
1 BISON HEART
1 TEASPOON SALT
2 CUPS COARSE, SOFT BREAD CRUMBS
1/2 TEASPOON POULTRY SEASONING, IF DESIRED
PEPPER TO SUIT TASTE
1 EGG, BEATEN
3/4 CUP MILK
1/4 CUP CHOPPED CELERY
1 TEASPOON CHOPPED ONION
2 TABLESPOONS MELTED BUTTER
WASH HEART IN WARM WATER AND REMOVE ARTERIES AND VEINS; AGAIN WASH THOROUGHLY INSIDE AND OUT. DRAIN THOROUGHLY, AND SPRINKLE INSIDE WITH HALF THE SALT. COMBINE BREADCRUMBS WITH REST OF SALT AND OTHER SEASONINGS, THEN ADD BEATEN EGG MIXED WITH MILK. ADD REMAINING INGREDIENTS, MIXING LIGHTLY, AND STUFF INTO HEART. TIE OR SEW UP HEART, PLACE IN BUTTERED CASSEROLE OR DUTCH OVEN THAT CAN BE COVERED, ADD 1/2 CUP WATER. COVER, AND BAKE IN A MODERATE OVEN (350 F.) FOR 3 TO 3 1/2 HOURS, OR UNTIL TENDER, ADDING MORE WATER DURING COOKING IF NECESSARY. MAKE GRAVY FROM LIQUID REMAINING AFTER HEART IS LIFTED OUT.
Bison Tongue and Tomato Gravy
1 BUFFALO TONGUE, FRESH OR FROZEN
1 ONION, CUBED
1 CAN TOMATO SOUP
2 CUPS WATER, JUICE FROM COOKING TONGUE
1 TABLESPOON VINEGAR
PLACE TONGUE IN PRESSURE COOKER WITH 2 CUPS WATER, A CUBED ONION AND 2-3 BAY LEAVES. PRESSURE COOK FOR 1 HOUR AT 10 POUNDS PRESSURE. REMOVE TONGUE, DISCARD BAY LEAVES. PEEL AND SLICE TONGUE. MEASURE LIQUID FROM COOKING TONGUE AND ADD WATER TO MAKE 2 CUPS. BROWN SLICED TONGUE IN BUTTER. ADD ONE CAN OF TOMATO SOUP AND 2 CUPS OF THE COOKING LIQUID, BAY LEAF, 1 T. OR MORE OF VINEGAR AND A DASH OF SUGAR. (OR USE VINEGAR/JUICE FROM SWEET PICKLES AND OMIT SUGAR.) GRAVY WILL NOT BE VERY THICK. SERVE WITH MASHED POTATOES AND YOUR FAVORITE GREEN VEGETABLE. ENJOY!
2 LBS. GROUND WILD T BISON BURGER
3 TBS OLIVE OIL
2 LG. YELLOW ONIONS. CHOPPED
4 CLOVES FRESH CHOPPED GARLIC
3 CUPS WATER
1- 29 OZ. CAN TOMATO SAUCE
3 1/2 CUPS GARDEN FRESH TOMATOES DICED
2 TBS ITALIAN SEASONING
3 BAY LEAVES
3 TBS SOY SAUCE
1 TBS SEA SALT
1 TSP FRESHLY GROUND PEPPER
2 CUPS ELBOW MACARONI
IN A LARGE POT, SAUTE THE GROUND BISON MEAT IN THE OLIVE OIL OVER MEDIUM HEAT JUST UNTIL DONE. BREAK THE MEAT UP SOMEWHAT LEAVING A FEW NICE CHUNKS. ADD THE ONIONS AND GARLIC TO THE POT AND COOK UNTIL THEY ARE TENDER. ADD THE WATER, TOMATO SAUCE, DICED TOMATOES, ITALIAN SEASONING, SOY SAUCE, BAY LEAVES, SALT AND PEPPER. STIR INGREDIENTS WELL AND COVER WITH A LID. COOK FOR 15 – 20 MINUTES AND REMOVE THE LID AND STIR THE UNCOOKED ELBOW MACARONI AND RETURN THE LID. REDUCE THE HEAT TO A SIMMER AND COOK FOR ANOTHER 25 – 30 MINUTES. TAKE OUT THE BAY LEAVES. SERVE WITH FRESHLY GRATED PARMESAN CHEESE AND A DOLLOP OF SOUR CREAM. GREAT SERVED WITH HOT CRUSTY ROLLS AND YOUR FAVORITE TOSSED SALAD.
1 pound Wild T Bison Farm Stew Meat, rinsed and patted dry
2 tablespoons olive oil
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 tablespoon coarse black pepper
1 tablespoon dried thyme leaves
1/2 tablespoon fresh rosemary, finely diced
1 tablespoons fresh garlic, diced
1 medium onion, diced
1/2 cup fresh mushrooms, sliced
2 stalks celery, sliced
3 carrots, peeled, halved and sliced
1/2 cup dry sherry
1 1/2 cups red wine
2 cups buffalo stock or organic beef stock
3 potatoes, unpeeled, parboiled whole and cubed
1 to 2 tablespoons arrow root or corn starch
2 tablespoons fresh parsley, chopped
Heat 1 tablespoon oil in heavy large pot over medium high heat.
Add half of stew meat, and sauté until meat is browned.
Remove browned stew meat from pan, set aside. Add remaining tablespoon of oil to pan and brown as above.
Add first batch of browned stew meat back to pan, along with dried seasoning, garlic and onion. Sauté for an additional 5 minutes.
Add mushrooms and stir to incorporate. Cook for 3 minutes.
Add sherry, and 2 cups of the red wine. Stir to incorporate. Bring to a boil, cover, reduce heat to low and simmer for ½ hour.
Uncover and bring heat up to medium high. Add stock, celery and carrots, stir in to incorporate and bring to full heat.
Reduce heat back to low, cover and let simmer for an additional ½ hour.
Uncover and add potatoes. Bring to a boil and cook for 10 minutes.
Mix thickening agent with remaining 1 cup wine, and whisk into stew. Bring to a full boil.
Reduce heat, add parsley, and season to taste. ENJOY!
Bison Short Ribs
5 Ibs bison short ribs
1 1/2 cups ketchup
1 1/2 cups vinegar
1/2 cup dark corn syrup
3 teaspoons sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon garlic powder
1/2 teaspoon onion powder
1/2 teaspoon Louisiana hot sauce
Heat all ingredients (except ribs) in a saucepan over high heat until boiling. Reduce heat, simmer 30-40 minutes, until sauce is thick. Coat ribs front and back with sauce reserving a small amount of sauce. Wrap ribs tightly in foil and bake covered in oven at 275º F for 3 to 4 hours. Remove ribs from foil, smother with more sauce and finish on grill for 2-3 minutes on each side.
BISON POT ROAST
3 lb. Bison roast
2 Tbs cooking oil
1 bay leaf
1 tsp salt
4 carrots, sliced
6 Spanish onions
6 potatoes, peeled & quartered
1 stalk celery, chopped
1 cup apple juice
1 cup water
1/2 tsp pepper
1 tbs cornstarch
Pre-heat oven to 275º F Heat oil in Dutch oven over medium heat. Add bison roast and brown well on all sides. Add onions, carrots, celery, bay leak salt, pepper, apple juice and water. Cover and place in preheated oven for 1 hour. Remove from oven, add potatoes. Cover and return to oven for 1 hour or until potatoes are fork tender. Thicken gravy with cornstarch.
EYE OF ROUND
Bison Eye of Round Roast approximately 2 pounds
1 tablespoon fresh thyme, stem removed, coarse chopped.
2 tablespoon fresh garlic cloves peeled and chopped well.
1 teaspoon fresh rosemary, stem removed, chopped well.
2 tablespoons kosher salt
1 tablespoon coarse ground black pepper.
2 to 3 ounces extra virgin olive oil
Put all the seasonings in a bowl, and drizzle in olive oil, mixing well with whisk or wooden spoon.
The result will be a thick mixture, almost a paste. Remove paste from bowl, and rub into bison
roast, pressing/rubbing the mixture into the roast well. Place roast in a large plastic bag for at
least two hours prior to cooking.
Preheat oven to 475 degrees. Place roast in roasting pan on a rack, on middle shelf of oven.
Cook for 15-20 minutes, until roast is browning well. Immediately drop oven temperature to 200
degrees. Continue cooking until internal temperature is 130 to 140 degrees or rare going into
mid-rare. The higher temperature reading will take you into medium, because of the ‘carry over
cooking’ that takes place with any item that is cooked. (that means the internal temperature of
the meat continues to rise after it’s removed from the oven) Remove the meat from the oven,
cover with foil and let it rest for 10 minutes, place on cutting board, and slice as thinly as
“The Most amazing Bison you’ll ever eat!”